By P. M. Chaikin, T. C. Lubensky
Признанный за рубежом учебник по физике конденсированных сред.
This ebook presents an outline of the physics of condensed topic platforms. Assuming a familiarity with the fundamentals of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, the e-book establishes a basic framework for describing condensed stages of topic in keeping with symmetries and conservation legislation. After surveying the constitution and houses of fabrics with diversified symmetries, it explores the function of spatial dimensionality and microscopic interactions in making a choice on the character of part transitions. specific awareness is given to serious phenomena and renormalization staff equipment.
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Extra resources for Principles of Condensed Matter Physics
This edge dislocation “glides” easily in the plane and allows the ice to shear above an d below the plane. The m otion o f dislocations is w hat allows for creep and dynam ic recrystal lization in ice glaciers. The pinning o f dislocations and dissipation associated with dislocation m otion are responsible for m ost o f the m echanical properties o f crystalline solids. W h at m akes dislocations possible is a com bination o f the periodicity o f the ideal crystalline state an d the elasticity o f th a t state.
Spins in an Ising m odel can p o in t only up o r dow n so th a t spinflip is the only nontrivial sym m etry o p eratio n th a t leaves the high-tem perature param agnetic state w ith random ly aligned spins unchanged. T here are only two equivalent low -tem perature ground states: th a t w ith all spins up and th a t with all spins dow n, an d there are n o low-energy excitations taking the system from one ground state to another. The elem entary excitations are dom ain walls sep arating u p spin from dow n spin regions.
A. Levy, Disc. , 43, 97 (1967). C. Poirier, Creep o f Crystals (Cambridge University Press, 1985). 2 Structure and scattering Large collections o f particles can condense into an alm ost limitless variety o f equilibrium an d nonequilibrium structures. These structures can be characterized by the average positions o f the particles an d by the interparticle spatial corre lations. Periodic solids, w ith th eir regular arrangem ents o f particles, are m ore ordered and have low er sym m etry th a n fluids w ith their ra n d o m arrangem ents o f particles in therm al m otion.