Electronic noise and fluctuations in solids by Sh. Kogan

By Sh. Kogan

This publication seems to be on the physics of digital fluctuations (noise) in solids. the writer emphasizes many primary experiments that experience turn into classics: actual mechanisms of fluctuations, and the character and value of noise. He additionally comprises the main entire and whole evaluate of flicker (1/f) noise within the literature. it will likely be worthwhile to graduate scholars and researchers in physics and digital engineering, and particularly these engaging in examine within the fields of noise phenomena and hugely delicate digital devices--detectors, digital units for low-noise amplifiers, and quantum magnetometers (SQUIDS)

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There are several ways to understand this. One argument stems from the fact that that if a particle is represented by a single frequency (or wavelength), its momentum (p ¼ h=l) is known precisely, but a plane wave extending from À1 to þ1 provides no information about the position of the particle. 3. The relative width of the wave packet can be shown to be inversely proportional to the spread in frequencies or Dx=l % l=Dl or DxDl % l2. Since p ¼ h=l, Dp ¼ ÀDlh=l2 and DxjDpj % h. Since the electron’s mass turns out to be 1=2000 that of the proton or neutron, its wavelength is on the order of atomic dimensions and its wave-like nature becomes dominant; whereas protons and neutrons with heavier masses and much shorter wavelengths exhibit more particle-like behavior.

Griffin, at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough, had taught concerning fracture mechanics in 1920. 3 How Materials Are Classified Materials can be classified into four broad categories: metals, ceramics, semiconductors, and polymers. Metals, because of their detached electrons, are good reflectors of light, good conductors of heat and electricity, and tend to be ductile. Ceramics generally are poor conductors of electricity because their valence electrons are tied up in chemical bonds, although the recent discovery of ceramic superconductors is a notable exception.

Metallic glasses are not transparent (since metals tend to be good reflectors), but the absence of grain boundaries gives them some interesting and useful properties. Since corrosive chemicals attack grain boundaries where the bonding is weakest, both metallic and ceramic glasses tend to be more resistant to chemical attacks. Since grain boundaries tend to make magnetic materials more difficult to demagnetize, amorphous iron–boron–silicon alloys are being used to reduce power loss due to hysteresis in power transformers.

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