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Additional info for Accounting of biological sinks and sources under the Kyoto Protocol : a step forwards or backwards for global environmental protection?
This explains why in young forest stands, high rates of carbon assimilation occur in conjunction with low carbon stocks, while old stands have low rates of annual growth but large stocks and the carbon pool of the ecosystem continues to rise. Due to the periodical disturbances by harvesting, the total carbon pool of managed forests is lower than that of primary forests (Figs. 11b, c, d). In management systems with continuous selection cutting, human impacts are relatively slight (Fig. 11b). Carbon stocks are generally reduced in the same degree that the intensity of management rises and the rotation lengths of forest stands are shortened.
Extensive production forest vs. plantation). • A determination of aboveground biomass and its changes does not suffice to quantify terrestrial carbon sources and sinks. Three methods are presently available to draw up carbon assimilation and respiration balances: 1. through long-term, periodical inventories on a statistical basis, covering both the carbon of the above- and belowground biomass, and the carbon of the organic layer, peat and mineral soil; 2. through micrometeorological measurements of individual stands (eddy covariance method integrating over km2), 3.
Old stands also exhibit substantial negative NEP (Buchmann and Schulze, 1998). Pasture land in the temperate zones can pose an unexpectedly large carbon source, while natural grasslands can represent substantial sinks (Annex Table 4). There are no or at best very few data available on wetlands, grasslands, and tropical forests. The first complete all-year data sets are now forthcoming from the international research projects EURO- FLUX,AMERIFLUX, EUROSIBIRIEN and CARBONFLUX. There have recently been some results published from the BOREAS project (Journal of Geophysical Research, 1998, Vol.