A Dictionary of Literary Symbols (2nd Edition) by Michael Ferber

By Michael Ferber

This is often the 1st dictionary of symbols to be in accordance with literature, instead of 'universal' mental archetypes or myths. It explains and illustrates the literary symbols that all of us often come across (such as swan, rose, moon, gold), and provides 1000s of cross-references and quotations. The dictionary concentrates on English literature, yet its entries variety commonly from the Bible and classical authors to the 20th century, taking in American and ecu literatures. For this re-creation, Michael Ferber has incorporated over twenty thoroughly new entries (including undergo, holly, sunflower and tower), and has additional to a number of the current entries. Enlarged and enriched from the 1st variation, its knowledgeable sort and wealthy references make this booklet an important device not just for literary and classical students, yet for all scholars of literature.

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28 Bruno Jasieñski: From Futurism to Socialist Realism Rhymes, in general, provide us with the most interesting material, illustrating Jasieñski's attempts to renovate the poetic language. Besides the traditional perfect rhymes, there are innumerable examples of approximate rhyme, of assonance, and of consonance. " Jasieñski tries to avoid grammatical rhymes; they are the easiest to find, since their similarity of sound results from the use of the same inflectional endings. In "Marching" the rhyme "pobiegty/cegty" contains a verbal form confronting a noun, while in "biate/przelicytowaia" an adjective is juxtaposed with a verb; in "kantem/chryzantem" the two nouns differ in case and number.

Pusccie! " Others, such as "nieechc^," are rendered phonetically. The same influence of colloquial language on poetic discourse distinguishes Vladimir Maiakovskii's poetry. Maiakovskii, more than any other Russian poet, was responsible for the transformation of the highly conventional poetic language into everyday language. He renovated the lexicón and stock of idioms of Russian poetry by introducing common words and augmentatives. 25 Maiakovskii's renovation of poetic language impressed Jasieñski a great deal, and the Polish Futurist attempted to bring about the same kind of renovation in regard to Polish poetry.

We could, however, speak of an allusion to meaning in the poem as a whole, which results from an accumulation of semantically related words evoking a certain image. The poem might be read as a description of the movement of water stirred by an oar, because of the recurrence of words from the same semantic field: "pluski" (splashes), "wioslobryzgi" (spatters of an oar), "fale" (waves), "wiosla" (oars), all referring to a river. Such an interpretation is also suggested by the tille of the poem, as well as by its beginning, "na rzece rzec ce na cerze mrze" (on the river, on [its] surface [someone's] voice is dying).

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