A Companion to the History of American Science by Georgina M. Montgomery

By Georgina M. Montgomery

A spouse to the historical past of yankee Science bargains a suite of essays that supply an authoritative assessment of the latest scholarship at the historical past of yank science.

  • Covers themes together with astronomy, agriculture, chemistry, eugenics, immense technological know-how, army know-how, and more
  • Features contributions by way of the main comprehensive students within the box of technology history
  • Covers pivotal occasions in U.S. historical past that formed the advance of technological know-how and technology coverage resembling WWII, the chilly warfare, and the Women’s Rights movement

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He conducted much of his early fieldwork in California, some of it with Kroeber’s informant Ishi, and in Utah, where he developed a close relationship with his own Paiute informant Tony Tillohash (Darnell 1990). On the basis of that work, Sapir argued that, psychologically, language and expression functioned differently across cultures, an approach he and his student Benjamin Lee Whorf expanded into a theory of linguistic cultural relativity (Koerner 1992; Whorf 1956). Many of Boas’s other students also expanded on their mentor’s relativistic approach with similarly fruitful results.

Polygenists argued instead that the “races” constituted fundamentally distinct species. Morton was a vehement polygenist, holding not only that “races” were created separately but that on the basis of their morphology they were discernibly inferior. Morton’s polygenesis found widespread support in the antebellum United States, as well as some sympathy abroad. His most notable supporter was Harvard geologist Louis Agassiz (1807–1873), who maintained his adherence to Mortonian polygenesis well after the Darwinian revolution.

When disagreements over the fair’s organization drove him away, Putnam left to set up the department of Archaeology and Ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History, which together with Columbia made New York a center of American anthropological research. In 1903, Putnum again moved on to found Berkeley’s anthropology department and museum with funding from the family of William Randolph Hearst. It was these university–museum pairs, in addition to the University of Pennsylvania, which founded its own museum in 1887, which fostered the field’s first cohorts of students and employed many of its first PhDs.

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